Manufacturing Process of Carbon Black
Classification of carbon black by manufacturing process
Carbon black is produced with the thermal decomposition method or the partial combustion method using hydrocarbons such as oil or natural gas as raw material.
The characteristics of carbon black vary depending on manufacturing process, and therefore carbon black is classified by manufacturing process. Carbon black produced with the furnace process, which is the most commonly used method now, is called “furnace black,” distinguishing it from carbon black, which is manufactured with other processes.
Furnace Black Process
This method forms carbon black by blowing petroleum oil or coal oil as raw material (feedstock oil) into high-temperature gases to combust them partially. This method is suitable for mass production due to its high yield, and allows wide control over its properties such as particle size or structure. This is currently the most common method used for manufacturing carbon black for various applications from rubber reinforcement to coloring.
This method forms carbon black by bringing partially combusted fuel, which is generated with natural gas as raw material, into contact with channel steel (H-shaped steel) and then collecting the carbon black which results.
There are yield and environment issues around this method, and therefore has lost the leading role as the mass production process to the furnace process. This method, however, provides carbon black with many functional groups on the surface, being used in some painting applications.
Acetylene Black Process
This process obtains carbon black by thermally decomposing acetylene gas. It provides carbon black with higher structures and higher crystallinity, and is mainly used for electric conductive agents.
This method obtains carbon black by collecting soot from fumes generated by burning oils or pine wood.
This method has been used since the days before Christ, and is not suitable for mass production. However, it is used as raw material for ink sticks as it provides carbon black with specific color.